Negotiations between the EU and Japan have also focused on a number of non-tariff measures that have raised concerns for EU companies, with some technical requirements and Japan`s certification procedures often making it more difficult to export safe European products to Japan. The agreement will lead to a long way to go to facilitate access for EU companies to the highly regulated Japanese market, particularly with regard to motor vehicles. The EPA ensures that Japan and the EU fully adapt to the same international standards for product safety and environmental protection, which means that European cars are subject to the same requirements in the EU and Japan and do not need to be re-tested and certified when exported to Japan. Now that Japan has committed to international automotive standards, EU car exports to Japan will be greatly simplified. The Economic Partnership Agreements are a system for creating a free trade area between the European Union and the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (ACP). This is a response to persistent criticism that the EU`s proposed non-reciprocal and discriminatory preferential trade agreements are incompatible with WTO rules. The EPAs date back to the signing of the Cotonou Agreement. EPAs with different regions are in different playing conditions. In 2016, the EPAs were to be signed with three regional economic communities in Africa (East African Community, Economic Community of West African States and Southern African Development Community), but these faced challenges.  [must be updated] A bilateral agreement is an agreement between two parties, in which each party declares itself ready to comply with the agreement. As has already been said, a bilateral treaty has, by definition, reciprocal obligations. This is what differentiates them from a unilateral treaty.
The guideline covers relevant processes within programs, projects and the Bilateral Relations Fund and should be relevant to national focal points, program managers and donor partners. The EU is implementing seven economic partnership agreements with 32 partners, 14 of which are in Africa.