Taif Agreement Hezbollah

11. Negotiate, after consultation with the Prime Minister, the conclusion and signing of international treaties that will only be valid after cabinet approval. The cabinet must familiarize the Chamber of Deputies with such treaties, where the interests of the country and the security of the state permit such initiation. Contracts relating to conditions relating to public finances, commercial contracts and other contracts, which cannot be cancelled each year, cannot be concluded without the agreement of the Chamber of Deputies. The Lebanese system of political confessionalism (al-taifiyya al-siyasiyya) or political sectarianism was originally a response to a sociological and ideological challenge. A sectarian distribution of power had already been adopted under the Ottoman Empire, since the creation of the administrative region of Lebanon in the 19th century, in the heart of modern Lebanon. The system of government established after Lebanon`s civil war in 1860, the Mutasarrifiyya, as the agreement previously adopted to end the conflict of 1840, accepted the various religious sects as political actors. In the post-1860 period and under the authority of an Ottoman Christian non-Arab governor, known as Mutasarrif, a board of directors was created, in which seats were reserved for the six main religious sects in Lebanon, in proportion to their total number.1 The agreement also provided for the disarmament of all national and non-national militias. Hezbollah, as a „resistance force“ and not a militia, was allowed to remain armed and fight Israel in the South, a privilege that, according to Swedish academic Magnus Ranstorp, obtained in part by using its influence as the holder of a number of Western hostages. [9] Within six months of the approval of the agreement in the National Assembly, all militias would have been dissolved. The agreement was approved on 22 October 1989 by 58 deputies (out of 62 MPs) at a solemn meeting in Taif. Under the agreement, all armed groups must be disbanded in early 1990. Behind the benevolent façade of a transfer of executive prerogatives from a once omnipotent presidency to the Council of Ministers, Taif has reorganized the powers and constitutional apparatuses.

It has also established a whole new paradigm of a sectarian balance of power by ending the political and symbolic hegemony of the Maronite establishment. However, the purpose of the delegated presidential powers was unclear. By transferring these powers to the cabinet, where religious parity was a formal guarantee of equality between communities, Taif also spread and spread power, making it difficult to locate and exercise. Nor was it clear who was to answer for the decisions. This situation was compounded by several provisions of the agreement, which probably remained deliberately vague and subject to interpretation. The agreement restructured the political system of the National Compact in Lebanon by inducing part of the power of the Maronite Christian community, which had obtained privileged status in Lebanon under French colonial rule.